BOSTON—Ancient revelation or extrabiblical supposition?
A controversial development points to what could be a missing text of the Holy Gospel, indicating that Jesus may have actually been married—and to someone believed to be named Mary.
Whether it was Mary Magdalene or some other woman who answers to the name of Mary, a common name in biblical times, no one is certain.
New scientific tests suggest that a fragment of papyrus in which Jesus speaks of “my wife” is more likely an ancient document than a forgery, according to an article published on Thursday by Harvard Theological Review.
The text, which is written in Coptic and is roughly the size of a business card, specifically contains the phrase, “Jesus said to them, my wife.”
Karen King, a Harvard professor of divinity, said the papyrus probably dated back to eighth century Egypt, based on radiocarbon dating and tests on the ink’s chemical composition.
Not proof of marriage
“If it was written in the eighth or even the ninth century, it’s still an ancient document,” she said in a conference call on Thursday. “It’s not a modern forgery.”
But, she stressed, the fragment doesn’t prove that the historical Jesus was actually married. Most reliable evidence from early Christianity is silent on Jesus’ marital status, King added.
If anything, she said, the papyrus provides insight into early Christianity’s debates over family life.
“Early Christians were extremely interested in whether or not they should marry or be celibate, or whether it was OK to have a family or whether one should remain virginal,” King said.
King said the papyrus, which contains about eight partial lines of text, appears to make the case that mothers and wives can be disciples. Jesus references his mother, wife and another female as his disciples apparently discuss whether a woman—identified as “Mary”—can join their ranks.
According to King’s translation, the text then reads, “Jesus said to them, my wife…” that is followed in the next line by “… she is able to be my disciple …”
King originally revealed the existence of the papyrus in 2012. Calling it the “Gospel of Jesus’ Wife,” her announcement sparked debate among religious and ancient scholars. But the publication of her findings was delayed for the tests. King maintains the “gospel” moniker was appropriate.
While the papyrus is too small to discern anything definitive about who composed it, King argued on Thursday that the text belonged to a body of ancient texts that illuminate facets of Jesus’ life.
“It contains a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples,” she said. “That would normally put it in the category of gospel.”
King hopes the research puts to rest questions about the text’s authenticity.
But Brown University professor Leo Depuydt, in an analysis also published on Thursday by Harvard Theological Review, was not convinced. He said the text contained grammatical errors that a native Coptic speaker would not make. King suggested in a phone interview that the text was written in an informal style that is found in other ancient Coptic texts.
Others have questioned the mysterious provenance of the papyrus.
King said she obtained the text in 2011 from a donor who wants to remain anonymous. That owner had purchased the text in 1999 from a collector who, in turn, had acquired it in East Germany around 1963.