Wednesday, November 21, 2018
  • share this

What’s behind the surprise eviction notice of Casa Vallejo?

Baguio’s culturati claim it’s abuse of the Indigenous People’s Rights Act
By: - Reporter
/ 05:49 AM January 26, 2014

BAGUIO’S heritage conservationists are fighting tooth and nail for the preservation of Casa Vallejo, the city’s oldest hotel, following a controversial ownership claim made by an indigenous family that said the land where the structure stands belonged to it “since pre-Hispanic times.” Vallejo regulars fear the claimants will demolish the property before selling the land to a condominium developer. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

BAGUIO CITY—Thank the exceptionally nippy weather here for cooling down tempers after the women running the century-old Casa Vallejo (or Vallejo Hotel) received an eviction letter telling them to leave on Jan. 14.

HIDDEN in a corner of Casa Vallejo is this peaceful and usually unoccupied garden. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

“We were all busy during the holiday season, from Dec. 24 to Jan. 2.  Then all of a sudden we get an eviction letter from the NCIP (National Commission on Indigenous Peoples),” said Mitos Benitez Yñiguez, who operates the globally renowned Hill Station restaurant in Casa Vallejo.


The eviction notice issued on Jan. 3 followed the NCIP’s issuance of two certificates of ancestral land titles (CALTs) to an Ibaloi family reportedly claiming that the land where Casa Vallejo stands has belonged to it “since pre-Hispanic times.”

Reports said the heirs of Cosen Piraso, represented by a certain Richard Acop, filed a petition before the NCIP only on Oct. 22, 2013, asking for a writ of possession over Casa Vallejo.


Already, the commission granted Piraso’s heirs’ petition. Yñiguez and associates were told they would be evicted from Casa Vallejo on Jan. 14.

A MOUNTAIN Cloud regular. The bookshop boasts of mostly Filipino tomes not usually found in big chain stores across the country. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

As expected, Baguio’s culturati raised a howl.  On the day Casa Vallejo was supposed to close, friends, regulars and supporters camped in front of the hotel entrance to express their indignation.

Rumors that the so-called “owners” planned to demolish Casa Vallejo and sell the 2,600 sq m where it stands to a condominium developer fueled more outrage.

As it is, Casa Vallejo is one of the few remaining bastions of colonial charm in a city being swallowed fast by the lethal combo of uncontrolled urbanization and overpopulation.

CANADA-BASED accountantWanda Rojo takes advantage of the earlymorning quiet to work at Hill Station’s dessert station. Rojo, who flies to Baguio for her yearly vacation, was shocked to learn that Casa Vallejo business owners and employees were given orders to vacate the premises in early January. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

Baguio’s old-timers are peeved at how vulcanizing shops, fast-food chains and sidewalks strewn with cheap souvenirs stand side-by-side with old houses and buildings that create the “Baguio atmosphere.”

In many conversations, blame is heaped on the succession of mayors who allegedly allowed the disfigurement of Baguio to happen.



‘They sneaked up on us’

“They sneaked up on us,” Yñiguez said of the NCIP memo.  “These people claiming the property have never shown their faces to us, ever.”

THE BRIGHT and airy Hill Station restaurant as seen from the Casa Vallejo hotel lobby. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

Yñiguez also wonders how the NCIP got into the picture, since they who have run businesses in Casa Vallejo since 2010 have a lease contract with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

“They (environment officials) have always been the ones leasing this land. And prior to the remodeling of Casa Vallejo, they used to hold office in the areas in Casa Vallejo where the Baguio Cinematheque and the New Haven Spa are located.  This was the DENR office,” she said.

Padma Perez, who runs Mountain Cloud bookshop in Casa Vallejo, noted that the old office of the Protected Areas and Wildlife Service and the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, both environment-concerned agencies, were also housed in Casa Vallejo at one time.

THE LOBBY of Casa Vallejo’s hotel. Guests are surprised to discover that the structure is actually three storeys deep, since the façade gives the impression that the hotel is a simple bungalow. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

“I used to be able to buy topographic maps here. We don’t know bakit biglang pumasok ang NCIP.  They just suddenly declared that this is ancestral land,” she added.

Casa Vallejo’s interesting history is narrated in a two-page petition to declare the structure as a heritage site that is addressed to chair Serena Diokno of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP).

Built in 1909 out of wood, galvanized iron and sawali, the structure along Upper Session Road was initially referred to as Dormitory 4 and housed American workers who helped build Baguio City, according to plans laid out by that era’s colonizers.

MOUNTAIN Cloud bookshop holds a poetry-reading night every third Monday of the month. On Jan. 20, young regulars took turns at the mic deploring through improvisation what they termed as a corporate-greed-fueled move to demolish Casa Vallejo and build a condominium unit in its place. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

The dormitory was leased in 1923 to Salvador Vallejo, a Spaniard who married a Filipino and was the grandfather of Manila Times columnist Maria Isabel Ongpin.

Vallejo opened a hotel named after him, and made dramatic improvements on the former Dormitory 4.

Ongpin, who chairs the Pine Cone Movement that is at the forefront of efforts to save what is left of Baguio City’s natural resources, said her mother Justina Vallejo Garcia helped the elder Vallejo manage the hotel after she was widowed.

This meant Ongpin and her siblings were regular fixtures in the hotel.

A YOUNG girl checks out one of locally published children’s books in Casa Vallejo’s Mountain Cloud bookshop. The store focuses on hard-to-find books, a deliberate move by shop owner Padma Reyes. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

Government records show that the land where Casa Vallejo stands is owned by the DENR and administered by the Natural Resources Development Corp (NRDC).

Inconsistent policy

Ongpin said that until the time of President Fidel Ramos, she was involved in running Casa Vallejo but was discouraged by the DENR’s inconsistent policy on leasing periods.

Initially, Casa Vallejo was granted 10-year leases by the government.  This was later reduced to five-year agreements, and later to one-year contracts that made it uncertain for anyone engaged in the hotel business wanting to proceed with investments.

In an interview at the Manila Golf Club, Ongpin said they returned the property to the DENR. “I said, ‘You want it? Take it!’ The DENR officials didn’t know what to do.”

THE HILL Station staircase leading up to the lobby also serves as the entrance to the dessert station and other establishments of Casa Vallejo, including Mountain Cloud bookshop, which specializes in local publications, and Baguio Cinematheque, which features award-winning Filipino films like those of Lino Brocka and Ishmael Bernal. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

“For seven years nandun ’yang Casa Vallejo, nabubulok. ’Yung mga tao stole the new wood I put in it.  All of Baguio was so angry that every time a DENR representative appeared in a public forum, they would attack.  ‘Why did you do that to Vallejo Hotel?’ They saw the light and gave a long lease to Roebling Company,” Ongpin said.

Ongpin refers to the Roebling Hotel, Inc. that officially operates Casa Vallejo.

“I’m very happy they remodeled it. It’s very nice.  Then they subleased the restaurant to Mitos.  She’s doing very well. I am very happy,” Ongpin said.

While a court case has yet to happen, Baguio residents point their fingers at land-grabbing syndicates for Casa Vallejo’s woes.

FIRST-TIME guests marvel at the interplay of natural light and space in Hill Station, Casa Vallejo’s restaurant that features wide windows, a log cabin vibe, and food that has earned the discerning nod of The Miele Guide for the past three years. PHOTO BY NIDA AVANCEÑA

During the interview, Ongpin produced copies of what appeared to be dubious “original certificate(s) of title” allegedly issued by the Land Registration Authority that were bandied about by a real-estate company trying to sell the land where Casa Vallejo stands.

Ongpin’s papers included an “acknowledgement receipt” addressed to a prominent Baguio-based businesswoman that the group was apparently trying to dupe into buying the Casa Vallejo lot.

Inquirer Lifestyle called the numbers on a business card of the real-estate company located along Bukaneg St., Barangay Legarda-Burnham.

The woman who answered was evasive when asked about the company’s efforts to sell the hotel lot, adding she was only an agent.

The woman said she would give Inquirer Lifestyle the landline numbers of the company, but never did.

Conchitina Sevilla-Bernardo, who has a property inside Camp John Hay, acknowledged efforts of groups issuing “spurious titles of ancestral lands.”



“They now want to take the Vallejo Hotel. We’re fighting a war there. Baguio is going haywire,” she said during an interview in her Makati residence.

Bernardo said Casa Vallejo’s plight strikes a sensitive nerve because “we all had memories of that hotel. Maribel grew up in that hotel.  It’s a Baguio landmark, and in comes this family that says they own it?”

Bernardo added that the Pine Cone Movement regularly receives e-mails “from people who are indignant” at what is happening to Casa Vallejo.

While Inquirer Lifestyle tried to get the side of the Ibaloi family, parties interviewed for this story could not provide access numbers.

A Baguio city hall employee only referred to a news conference covered by local newspapers two weeks back where Piraso’s heirs asserted their private ownership of the lot where Casa Vallejo stands even before the Spaniards arrived.

Part of the statement issued to media read: “Despite the subsequent administrative and executive issuances making Casa Vallejo what it is today, the character of the land beneath it did not change.  The land remains of private ownership.”

To complement the petition declaring Casa Vallejo a heritage site addressed to the NHCP, the Baguio city council is set to hold hearings on a proposed resolution urging the commission to do so.

Meanwhile, the Office of the City Legal Council maintained that Mayor Mauricio Domogan supports all moves to preserve the hotel.

Domogan would not answer calls made by Inquirer Lifestyle. However, the city hall’s media office gave a copy of a local newspaper where the mayor was quoted, saying he plans to question CALTs issued by the NCIP, especially to those “properties which are already titled and even owned by the government,” as in the case of Casa Vallejo.

Ongpin is convinced there are those who are abusing the Indigenous People’s Rights Act of 1997 (RA 8371) that supposedly protects members of indigenous groups from land-grabbers.

She noted that those engaged in the seemingly irregular titling of lands using the IPRA specifically target those owned by the government, since there is a greater chance of success.

“These parties leave alone lands that are privately owned and titled because they know the targeted victims will fight back,” Ongpin said.

 Even Mansion House

Note that the NCIP has also issued CALTs to government-owned reservations and parks in Baguio including Wright Park, Mansion House, Botanical Garde, portions of Loakan Airport, Busol Watershed and Forbes Park reservation.

Ongpin then referred to efforts being made by Mary Grace Bandoy, a researcher-activist heavily involved in the initiative to declare the entire city of Baguio as a special heritage zone.

In an e-mailed statement, Bandoy told Inquirer Lifestyle that colleague Dion Fernandez was the author of the original petition begun in 2003.

While Fernandez’s move earned support from the Heritage Conservation Society, “unfortunately it got stuck in the Baguio city council during that time,” she added.

Bandoy said she edited Fernandez’s original petition and re-circulated it.

“Our target is just to get at least 500 signatures to complement the 2003 petition and have it submitted to the Office of the President,” she noted.

In her e-mail, Bandoy also said their efforts are spurred by observations that Baguio’s “over-development and nonpreservation of the culture and heritage” is a result of “corruption in our local government and in other government agencies concerned with land disposal and developments.”

Bandoy, who described herself as an “anti-graft and corruption researcher,” singled out the DENR, NCIP, the Register of Deeds, Bureau of Lands, and the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board for the situation.

“They are welcoming and unscrupulously allowing all forms of development in the city, whether these are legal or illegal, with no sense or notion of land use and urban planning whatsoever,” she exclaimed.

“As long as there are no preservation or conservation measures put in place, the over-development and environmental degradation of Baguio will continue to happen, thus our immediate call to declare Baguio a special heritage zone,” Bandoy added.

Meanwhile, Vancouver-based accountant Wanda Rojo sits in a quiet corner of Hill Station’s dessert station, multitasking between breakfast and work in her laptop.

“I have been coming back to Casa Vallejo since 2010 when the improvements were made.  This place makes anyone proud to be a Baguio resident and invite guests over,” she said.

Rojo was visibly shocked when informed about the near-eviction a week back.

“If this is taken away, they would take away something valuable.  Baguio will lose its character,” she warned.

Read Next
Follow @KatyYam on Twitter
Don't miss out on the latest news and information.
View comments

Subscribe to INQUIRER PLUS to get access to The Philippine Daily Inquirer & other 70+ titles, share up to 5 gadgets, listen to the news, download as early as 4am & share articles on social media. Call 896 6000.

TAGS: Baguio City, Casa Vallejo, Conchitina Sevilla-Bernardo, Ibaloi Family, Indigenous People’s Rights Act, Maria Isabel Ongpin, Mitos Benitez Yñiguez, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, Philippine tourism, Serena Diokno, Sunday Lifestyle, Travel, Vallejo Hotel
For feedback, complaints, or inquiries, contact us.

© Copyright 1997-2018 | All Rights Reserved

We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. By continuing, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. To find out more, please click this link.